The art and science of connecting individual localarea networks lans to create widearea networks wans, and connecting wans to form even larger wans. Learn the differences between connectionoriented and connectionless services. It is important to note that a single end system may have multiple network interfaces. Internetworking is the concept of interconnecting different types of computer networks.
Network layer and internetworking free download as powerpoint presentation. Two types of packets are used at the network layer. With ip we can interconnect ieee 802 networks easily. They can be statically configured go on different network or they can learn by using internetworking routing protocol. Provides data transfer between endsystems q internet. Computer networks pdf notes free download cn notes. In general, we use a cloud to denote any type of network, whether it is a single pointtopoint link, a multipleaccess link, or a switched network.
Internetworking is a combination of the words inter between and networking. Notice that the bottom layer is identified as the first layer. A host with a packet to send transmits it to the nearest router, either on its own lan or over a pointtopoint link to the carrier. Internetworking question answers mcq it officer exam for. To solve the internetworking problem, one also needs to consider the mode of operation of the co network. Internetworking connectionless and connectionoriented.
Internetworking can be extremely complex because it generally involves connecting networks that use different protocols. Logical addressing, internetworking, tunneling, address mapping, icmp, igmp, forwarding, unicast routing protocols, multicast routing protocols. Ip is a powerful and widely used internetworking protocol. Network interface layer d communication between a computer and network hardware d also called data link or mac layer. Lets start by defining exactly what an internetwork is. Internetworking ensures data communication among networks owned and operated by different entities using a common data communication and the internet routing protocol. Data packets data packets are used to transport the user data across the network. Repeaters operate at the physical layer, copying signals from one lan to another.
It selects and manages the best logical path for data transfer between nodes. You create an internetwork when you connect two or more networks via a router and configure a logical networking addressing scheme with a routed protocol, such as ip or ipv6. Chapter 11 internetworking technologies handbook 15870500 1 chapter goals learn what makes up an internetwork. This layer contains hardware devices such as routers, bridges, firewalls and switches, but it actually creates a logical image of the most efficient communication route and implements it with a physical medium. The book is aimed at all audiences even those with absolutely no prior tech. Discuss the services provided to the transport layer by the network layer. Chapter 1 introduction to networking and the osi model. Network layer protocol an overview sciencedirect topics. In network layer protocols, specifically in the ip, addresses identify network adapters. This address is technically called the media access control address mac because it is found on the mac sub layer of the data link layer. Fundamentals of computer networking and internetworking.
A routers network layer is usually responsible for doing the fragmentation. The network layer is considered the backbone of the osi model. Physical networks can be connected at several levels. Chapter 9 covers layer 3 addressing generically and gives a detailed comparison of ip, ipv6, clnp, decnet, appletalk, and ipx. The network layer accomplishes this via a process known as fragmentation. This is the main role of the network layer that it provides the logical connection between different types of networks. Find materials for this course in the pages linked along the left. Ipv4 and ipv6 ipv4 addresses 32 bit address unique and universal address space total number of. Application processes in the host router ftp telnet smtp host a ftp telnet smtp host b subnet 2 subnet 1 12 the ohio state university raj jain internet protocol ip.
There a minute difference between extending the network and internetworking. Ip is a standard that defines the manner in which the network layers of two hosts interact. The link layer corresponds to the osi data link layer and may include similar functions as the physical layer, as well as some protocols of the osis network layer. Preface the goal of this book is to provide a basic understanding of the technical design and architecture of the internet. Network interface layer d communication between a computer and network hardware d also called data link or mac layer d mechanisms for gaining access to shared media d.
The routeing tables grow proportionally with the network size. Internetworking troubleshooting handbook, second edition 1587050056 chapter 7 troubleshooting tcpip tcpip introduction addressing as with all network layer protocols, the addressing scheme is integral to the process of routing ip datagrams through an internetwork. Large networks can be organised hierarchically into the regions, further the regions into clusters, clusters into zones, the zones into groups, so on. An ip address is 32 bits in length, divided into either two or three parts. The fragmentation is a process of breaking the packets into the smallest individual data units that travel through different networks.
Network layer addresses 16 internetworking devices 16 gateways and hosts 17 routers 18 bridges 18 repeaters 18 2 the internet protocols introduction 21 the internet protocol suite 21 internet protocol ip 21 transmission control protocol tcp 22 netcpts. Sun routing algorithm routeing algorithm is part of the network layer software for datagrams, decision is made for each packet for virtual circuit, decision is made when setting up desirable properties. Dimitrios serpanos, tilman wolf, in architecture of network systems, 2011. Internet router architecture 8 router 3layer physical, datalink, network device, with 3 key functions. Network layer introduction, functions and protocols.
Information formats 114 internetworking technology overview. The network interface card address, called the hardware address, is protocolindependent and is usually assigned at the factory. Networks can be considered different based on various parameters such as, protocol, topology, layer2 network and addressing scheme. Ip address to mean logical address in the network layer of the tcpip protocol suite. Internetworking deals with the issues of interconnecting multiple networks. Merely exploitation of either a switch or a hub to attach 2 local area networks is an extension of lan whereas connecting them via the router is associate degree example of internetworking. This tutorial explains internetworking in computer network with five key internetworking devices hub, bridge, switch, router and multilayer.
Freely browse and use ocw materials at your own pace. The application layer is the osi layer closest to the end user, which means that both the osi application layer and the user interact directly with the software application. Internetworking is enforced in layer three network layer of osiiso model. This graphic shows a basic local area network, or lan, thats connected using a hub, which is just an. Lets get started by taking a look at a basic network. All reassembly of fragmented packets happens at the network layer of the final destination system. In internetworking, routers have knowledge of each others address and addresses beyond them. Presentation application session transport network data link physical layer 7 layer 6 layer 5 layer 4 layer 3 layer 2 layer. Lecture notes computer networks electrical engineering. Internetworking is the process or technique of connecting different networks by using intermediary devices such as routers or gateway devices. These two layers are used for the delivery of the data on the network from one node to the other node. These comparisons are based on the original sevenlayer protocol model as defined in iso 7498, rather than refinements in the internal organization of the network layer. Internetworking is implemented in layer 3 network layer of this model the most notable example of internetworking is the internet capitalized.
In this chapter we discussed the atm technology and how it can be used to build local area networks and wide area networks with a good control on the quality of service it provides to applications. Jun 16 notes 2025 views 2 comments on internetworking and network layer internetworking the physical layer and the data link layer of the particular network locally. Chapter 7 covers connectionoriented networks, including atm and x. Note that network layer addresses can also be referred to as logical addresses. Internetworking refers to the industry, products, and procedures that meet the challenge of creating and administering. Chapter 8 discusses the issues in a generic connectionless network layer. Learn basic internetworking concepts such as collision domain and broadcast domain in detail with examples. Sw standards that allow reliable communications without reliable networks hierarchy of layers, giving each layer responsibility for portion of overall communications task, called protocol. Introduction to internetworking 17 characteristics of the osi layers layer 7application layer layer 6presentation layer layer 5session layer layer 4transport layer layer 3network layer layer 2data link layer layer 1physical layer figure 12 illustrates the sevenlayer osi reference model. There are three variants of internetwork or internetworking, depending on who administers and who participates in them.639 216 669 1497 791 1508 386 93 1530 703 1349 515 989 543 389 1540 76 845 1370 1241 1077 295 252 266 1441 158 748 1233 33 557 703 1232 492 1310 122 934 1205 1102 977 714 883 1267 473